Building Codes Codes

Download NBC Codes: Nepal National Building Code (NBC)

Nationa Building Code (NBC Codes) is a group of 23 codes. At first 20 codes are developed after that 3 codes, architectural code, electrical, and sanitation are added to NBC in 2060 B.S.

To Download NBC 105: 2020 Click Here

Why the National Building Code (NBC) is required in Nepal?

After the 2045 B.S earthquake that time his government felt that they require their own Building Code. More reasons are:

  1. Due to the lack of country code mostly engineers are forced to use other country building codes.
  2. Without considering the strength of materials people are constructing residential buildings.
  3. 10-15 years ago, about 95% of the building’s structures are built-up without taking the suggestion of any technicians or engineers.
  4. Even technicians do not have proper knowledge and idea about earthquake residential buildings.

Implementation of NBC Codes

From 2060/04/12, NBC is started to use in government and government shared construction buildings. Later in 2062/11/01 after the publish of Gadget NBC is implemented in 58 municipalities, 28 VDC where district headquarter lies at that time.

Before releasing it on government gadget to implement the NBC is started to use in Lalitpur metropolitan in 2059 B.S Magh-2 on the occasion of National Earthquake day.

Download NBC Codes: Nepal National Building Code

National Building Code (NBC) is a group of 23 codes. At first 20 codes are developed after that 3 codes, architectural code, electrical, and sanitation are added to NBC in 2060 B.S.

National Building Code(NBC) are sub categorized into 4 types:

1. International state-of-Art (SOA):

By using reference from the developed country building code you can design a building. Generally, while constructing important buildings, commercial buildings, stadium reference is taken from developed country code. It contains only one code.

Download International State-of-Art: NBC 000

2. Professionally Engineered Buildings (PEB):

Buildings having a plinth area of more than 1000 square feet or a structural span greater than 4.5-meter are categorized in Professionally Engineered Buildings (PEB). These buildings should be designed and built-in with guidelines of engineers.

Download Codes for Professionally Engineered Buildings:














3. Mandatory Rule of Thumb (MRT)

The main objective of these Mandatory Rules of Thumb (MRT) is to provide ready-to-use dimensions and details for various structural and non-structural elements for up to three-storey reinforced concrete (RC), framed, ordinary residential buildings commonly being built by owner-builders in Nepal. Their purpose is to replace the non-engineered construction presently adopted with pre-engineered construction. Now, it is mandatory to follow MRT while designing or constructing buildings in every municipality of Nepal.

Download Codes of Mandatory Rules of Thumb (MRT):




4. Guidelines for Remote Rural Buildings (GRB)

Guidelines for Remote Rural Buildings (GRB) guidelines are prepared in order to raise the seismic safety of low-strength masonry buildings and earthen buildings. These guidelines are intended to be implemented by the owner/builder with some assistance from the technicians.

Download Guidelines for Remote Rural Buildings (GRB) Codes:



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Engineering Software ETABS

ETABS Shortcut keys !! Very Useful For ETABS

ETABS is engineering software used for structural analysis and design of buildings. In the engineering field mostly engineers prefer to work in ETABS because of its flexibility and user friendly. It is created by American based company CSI.

ETABS is very much useful for structural engineers as well as a civil engineer. For structural analysis, we use various standard codes as references that are pre-defined on ETABS. Manually it takes hours even a day or more than that to analyze and do complex calculations.

Why do you need to use ETABS?

  • It saves time as well as you need to put less effort into the structural analysis.
  • Easy and user friendly.
  • Easily you can check the stability of the structure.
  • It calculated the seismic and wind load properly.
  • You can easily find out the required amount of reinforcement.
  • You can see the 3D view of structure, plan, and elevation at the same time.

Now, lets come to the main topic of the article. While working with ETABS software if we prefer the use of shortcut keys instead of going to an individual menu for each time, it will dramatically save our time. ETABS have limited numbers of shortcut keys as compare to AutoCAD among them if we remember 20/30 shortcut keys that will be enough for design and analysis work for structures.

ETABS Shortcut Keys list :

1. File Menu

  • Ctrl+N –New Model
  • Ctrl+O – Open File
  • Ctrl+Shift+E – File Close
  • Ctrl+ S – Save File
  • Ctrl+P – Print Graphics
  • Ctrl+Shift+C – Comments and Log
  • Ctrl+Shift+F -Show Input/Output Text Files
  • Alt+F4 – Exit
  • Ctrl+Shift+5 – Capture Picture > Entire Screen
  • Ctrl+Shift+6 – Capture Picture > Current Window / Titlebar
  • Ctrl+Shift+9 – Capture Picture > Current Window as Enhanced Meta file

2. Edit Menu

  • Ctrl+Z – Undo
  • Ctrl+Y – Redo
  • Ctrl+X – Cut
  • Ctrl+C – Copy
  • Ctrl+V – Paste
  • Ctrl+R – Replicate
  • Ctrl+Shift+M – Align Joints/Frames/Edges
  • Ctrl+M – Move Joints/Frames/Shells
  • Delete – Delete

3. View Menu

  • Ctrl+Shift+F1 – Set Plan View
  • Ctrl+Shift+F2 – Set Elevation View
  • Ctrl+Shift+F3 – Set 3D View
  • Ctrl+D – Set Grid System Visibility
  • Ctrl+W – Set Display Options
  • F2 – Rubber Band Zoom
  • F3 – Restore Full View (Zoom All)
  • Shift+F2 – Zoom In One Step
  • Shift+F3 – Zoom Out One Step
  • F10 – Pan
  • Ctrl+Shift+A – Show All Objects
  • Ctrl+Shift+J – Show Selected Objects Only
  • Ctrl+Shift+W – Refresh Window
  • Ctrl+Shift+V – Refresh View

4. Select Menu

  • Ctrl+A – Select All
  • Ctrl+G – Select Groups
  • Ctrl+J – Get Previous Selection
  • Ctrl+K – Invert Selection
  • Ctrl+Q – Clear Selection
  • Ctrl+Shift+L – Intersecting Line
  • Ctrl+Shift+O – Poly
  • Ctrl+Shift+P – Intersecting Poly

5. Analyze Menu

  • F4 – Undeformed Shape
  • F5 – Run Analysis

6. Display Menu

  • F6 – Deformed Shape
  • F12 – Plot Functions
  • Ctrl+T – Show Tables
  • F7 – Force/Stress Diagrams > Support/Spring Reactions
  • F8 – Force/Stress Diagrams > Frame/Pier/Spandrel/Link Forces
  • F9 – Force/Stress Diagrams > Shell Stresses/Forces

7. Design Menu

  • Shift+F5 – Steel Frame Design > Start Design/Check
  • Ctrl+Shift+F5 – Steel Frame Design > Display Design Info
  • Shift+F6 – Concrete Frame Design > Start Design/Check
  • Ctrl+Shift+F6 – Concrete Frame Design > Display Design Info
  • Shift+F7 – Composite Beam Design > Start Design/Check
  • Ctrl+Shift+F7 – Composite Beam Design > Display Design Info
  • Shift+F8 – Composite Column Design > Start Design/Check
  • Ctrl+Shift+F8 – Composite Column Design > Display Design Info
  • Shift+F9 – Steel Connection Design > Start Design/Check
  • Ctrl+Shift+F9 – Steel Connection Design > Display Design Info
  • Shift+F10 – Shear Wall Design > Start Design/Check
  • Ctrl+Shift+F10 – Shear Wall Design > Display Design Info

8. Other shortcut keys

  • Ctrl+U – Display Unit
  • F1 – ETABS Help
  • Ctrl+L – Change Language to
Etab Shortcut Keys List
Etab ShortcutKey List1

You may also searching for: AutoCAD Shortcut Keys

Tips & Tricks

Report writing method for engineering projects !!!!

Report is an objective communication of factual information that serves for business purposes.

Why we need to write a report?

In professional life, you need to have report writing skills. Like, I’m in the civil engineering field. Before starting any projects we need to make the DPR of those projects. For that, we need a basic skill of writing and need to follow the standard pattern/method. If you are working on any projects then either you need to write a daily/weekly work progress report.

Although there are various types of reports in our life that we encounter. We have a news report, a biology lab report, a physics experiment report, a technical report, etc.

If you are in construction field usually your superiors or boss, may need certain information regarding their business or construction, factory, lab, etc and there might come some problems and there is the need for information and suggestions to solve these problems.

In such a situation he/she will authorize certain people in his/her organization or outside to investigate the matter, submit him/her the required data and information, and also suggestions and recommendations to solve the problems. Therefore it is clear that we must identify and state the problems before we begin to write a report.

Write both positive and negative points on the report.

How to write a report?

Here, I divide the report into two parts so it will be easy to understand and write a report.

During the report writing process, you need to follow it.

  • First part:- what we write on which page, what information they will get.
  • Second parts:- which we write a report with data, conclusion, and references.

A) First Part of the report

  1. Title:
    • The title is the first page or cover of the report that contains only the title of the report.
    • The title page presents the report title. It displays information essential to report’s identification.
    • It should include identification of the report writer, authorize or recipient of the report (to whom the report is written)
  2. Acknowledgments:
    • Briefly thank people who offered help in collecting the information for the report.
    • This help may be from librarians, technicians, computer center staff, friends, family members, and others.
  3. Abstract or executive summary:
    • It provides a summary of the entire work.
    • It should include a short statement of the main task, the methods used, a conclusion reached, and any recommendations to be made.
    • It should be concise, informative, and independent of the report by highlighting purpose, findings, and results.
  4. Table of contents(TOC):
    • It is the list of main sections with their page numbers.
    • They help direct the reader to the key sections in the report and show the contents of the report in a logical order.
  5. List of Tables and illustrations:
    • list any illustrations, graphs, tables, charts etc and their page numbers.
  6. Appendices:
    • An appendix contains additional information related to the report.
    • If you use supplementary materials in the process of research or writing the report such as questionnaires, interview transcripts, a list of interviewees, survey forms, letters, maps, graphics, and photos, you will need appendices.
numerical data in report
Collect data related to the the topic of your report.

Note: Before going to the second part of the report. To write a good report you need to have good knowledge of that topic. Collect some numerical data as well as some facts related to the report topic.

B) Second Part of the Report

  1. Introduction:
    • This is the background that may describe how the project came into being. It is the description of the report in detail.
  2. Objective:
    • This section describes the main motto or objective to write the report.
    • Mention the aims and objectives to clarify the context of the report.
    • Explain why the report is requested.
    • Describe the scope of the subject matter in detail.
  3. Methodology:
    • This section clearly states the method used for your investigation, identifying the design of your research and why this method was chosen.
    • It explains how data was gathered (interviews, surveys, observations, discussions, etc. so readers can see how relevant and thorough the writer has been in research.
  4. Results or findings:
    • This section objectively reports the findings or results such as descriptions, statistical data, charts, and graphs.
    • Some of the ways to present results are tables, graphs, pie charts, bar charts, diagrams, etc.
  5. Discussion:
    • This is the section in which results can be interpreted and analyzed drawing from the collected information.
    • Here is the identification of important issues, suggestions, and explanations of findings.
  6. Conclusion and recommendation:
    • This is the section of the report which draws together the main issues.
    • It wraps up the report by summarizing key points but not introducing any new material.
    • It includes the writer’s logical assessment of what has been discovered.
    • The recommendation can put in a separate section or include them with a conclusion.
    • In recommendation, there is a possible solution to the problems identified in the report from the side of readers.
  7. References:
    • There is the full list of books, articles, and internet sources you cite to write the report.
    • Here includes: author’s name and initials, date of publication, the title of the book, publisher, place of publication, page numbers.

In this way, you can write a report on any topic for any projects!!! 😀

If you have any confusion about report writing you can message us at Facebook page Ravi Dhami.


Highway Drainage: Effects & types of highway drainage

Highway Drainage is the process of interception and removal of water from over, under and the vicinity of the road surface. After the precipitation, apart of water is lost by evaporation and transportation. A part is percolated and the remaining water is called surface water. The process of removal or diversion of this water is called surface drainage.

There is a water table below the subgrade of the road. The measures adopted to lower the water table is known as sub-surface drainage.

Types of Highway Drainage

1. Drainage in rural highway

The surface water is drained from the pavement surface through side drain which may be unlined and open. This side drain is trapezoidal in shape and provided at the suitable cross and longitudinal slope.

Drainage in rural highway

In the case of the embankment, the longitudinal drains are provided either on one side or both sides. In the case of cutting drainage is provided on both sides.

2. Drainage in urban streets

In urban areas, there is space restriction due to foot-path, dividing islands, etc. So, underground longitudinal drains are provided at the sides of the road.

Water drained from the pavement surface is carried forward in a longitudinal direction between the curve and the pavement for a short distance. This water is collected in catch pits at suitable intervals and led through an underground drainage pipe.

3. Drainage in hill road

Road drainage along with the water flowing down the hill should be efficiently disposal off down the hill constructing suitable cross drainage structures like drainage bridge, culvert, etc.

There should also be the provision of a catch drain at the upper hillside and side drains at the side of the road.

Effects and Importance of Highway Drainage system

  1. It decreases the bearing capacity of the subgrade of the road.
  2. Standing water on the highway reduces the coefficient of friction which is a danger for the high-speed traffic.
  3. Formation of put holes, waves, and corrugation in the flexible pavement.
  4. Water causes mud pumping in the rigid pavement.
  5. It causes the erosion of the side slope.
  6. It may cause the failure of a side formation slope.
  7. Frost action at the cold region or during the winter season may cause the failure of the subgrade of the road.
  8. We need huge amounts of money yearly in high maintenance.

Causes of moisture variation in sub-grade soil

The main causes of moisture variation can be grouped as:

A) By free water

  • Seepage of water from higher ground level.
  • Penetration of water through pavement.
  • Transfer of moisture from shoulder and edge of the pavement.

B) By ground water

  • Rise and fall of the water table.
  • Capillary rise from lower soil level.
  • Transfer of water vapor through the soil.

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Bricks Building Materials

Composition of Brick

Bricks may define as a structural unit of rectangular shape and convenient site that is made from suitable types of clays by different processes involving molding, drying, and burning. In this article, you will learn about the materials used to make brick and its properties.

Even at present, brick is the most basic and favored material for common constructions though out the world.

The popularity of brick as a material of constructions is because of their local and cheap availability, strength, durability, reliability and insulating property against heat and sound.

Composition of brick or materials used in making brick

In general, it is observed that any soil that contains one-fourth part of clay and three by fourth parts of sand and silt is suitable for making bricks.

Good brick earth should be such that when prepared with water it can be easily molded dried and burnt without cracking or warping. It should contain a small quality at finely divided lime to help in binding the particles of brick together by melting the particles of sand.

A little oxide of iron should also be present which would give the brick its peculiar red color and act as a flux in the same manner as lime.

However, suitable brick earth should have various constituents in the following proportion.

i) Alumina or clay (20% – 30%)

  1. It shows the plastic character to the clay in wet conditions and is capable of being molded to any shape.
  2. When alumina is greater than 30% brick will become more plastic and also shrink more and develop cracks on drying.
  3. If less than 20%, it may be difficult to mold to proper shapes and develop cracks on a molding. So it provides plasticity resistance against shrinkage and makes the brick hard.

ii) Silica or sand (50% to 60%)

  1. Silica is present in much clay in two forms as a constituent of clay minerals and also as free. It is in the form of sand or quartz.
  2. Silica is infusible except at very high temperature but in the presence of alumina is nearly equal proportions and the oxide of iron it fuses at low temperature.
  3. Unlike the silicate of Alumina, its presence in clay produces hardness, resistance to heat, durability and prevents shrinkage and warping.
  4. Excess of it makes the bricks brittle.

iii) Lime (4% to 6%)

  1. When present in small quantities in the finely divided state it reduces shrinkage of brick, helps silica to melt at lower temperature and binds the particles of the brick together resulting in greater strength of brick.
  2. Excess of lime causes the brick to melt and lose its shape.

You may also love to read: 10 quality of bricks used in building construction

iv) Iron oxide (4% to 6%)

  1. Iron oxide acts as a flux, it lowers down the softening temperature of silica and other clay components during firing.
  2. The iron oxide imparts the very characteristic red color to the burnt brick.
  3. The excess of iron oxide makes the brick too soft during the burning stage, they suffer deformation in shape and make the dark blue color.
  4. A deficiency of iron oxide in the clay may make their burning difficult and also give then a yellowish appearance.

v) Magnesia: (1% to 2%)

  1. Small qualities at magnesia in brick earth make the brick of yellowish color and reduce shrinkage.
  2. But excess of magnesia leads to the delay of bricks.

If you are confused or unclear about this topic. Kindly check out a similar type of article by civil today: Click Here

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Triple Bitumen Surface Dressing

Triple bitumen surface dressing is carried out to improve the condition of existing bitumen paved roads and to protect the base course. It does not have any specific thickness. The thickness varies as per requirement. A thin layer of bituminous material is laced over the existing pavement with aggregates and rolled.

Materials Required For Construction Of Bitumen Surface Dressing!!

The coarse aggregates should be of crushed stones. It should be clean, strong and durable having the following properties:

  1. Los angles abrasion value (LAA) = 35%
  2. Aggregate impact value (AIV) = 30%
  3. Flakiness index(FI) = 25%
  4. Water absorption = 1%
  5. Stripping value = 25%

Plants AND Equipment’s Required for Bitumen Surface Dressing !!

  1. Bitumen heating device
  2. Mechanical sweeper
  3. Bitumen Sprayer
  4. Pneumatic roller
  5. Aggregate spreader

Construction Steps for Triple Bitumen Surface Dressing!!

  1. Preparation of existing surface
  2. Application of prime coat or tack coat
  3. Application of 16-18 mm stone chippings.
  4. Rolling the pneumatic roller over the first coat for at least four passes
  5. Opening to traffic with a controlled lower speed of less than 10 kph for a couple of weeks
  6. Brooming is done and the loose aggregates are cleaned.
  7. Application of binder material and 10 mm stone chipping for a second coat.
  8. Rolling off the second coat by pneumatic roller for at least four passes.
  9. Opening to traffic with a controlled lower speed of less than 10 kph for one or two weeks
  10.  Once again brooming and cleaning of loose aggregates is done.
  11.  For the third coat, the binder is applied with 8 mm stone chippings
  12.  A pneumatic roller is passed over the third coat at least four passes.
  13.  Finishing and opening to traffic.
Engineering Knowledge

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Estimation Technical Specifications

Brickwork with Cement Mortar – Specification

This article will help you to understand the detailed procedure used while working on brickwork.

While working at the site engineer, as well as constructor need to follow the specific guideline to achieve an effective working result.

Read the detail specification of Brickwork with Cement mortar and follow the guidelines while working at the site.

Brickwork Specification – Procedure for Brickwork

1) Selection of Materials for Brickwork

For the good quality of work, you need to select the good quality of materials. While selecting the materials for brickwork you need to follow the standard guidelines and code.

a) Bricks

  • Bricks shall be a uniform size, thoroughly well burnt but not over burnt.
  • The bricks shall have rectangular faces with parallel sides and shall have sharp, straight right-angled edges.
  • Brick should give clear metallic sound when struck and shall be free from lumps cracks, chips, flaws, etc.
  • On saturation, the increase in weight shall not exceed 20% of dry weight when tested according to IS:1077-1957.
  • And, Crushing strength of the brick shall not be less than 40kg/cm² when dry and 30kg/cm² when saturated.

To know more about the top quality of bricks. Click Here.

b) Cement

  • The cement should conform to I.S. 269-1976.
  • Ordinary Portland cement should be used unless otherwise specified.
  • The weight of О.Р.С. should be 1440 kg/m³ and rapid hardening Portland cement should be 1210kg/m³.
  • The minimum compressive strength of OPC should be 25kg/cm².
  • The initial setting time should not be less than 30 min and the final should not less than 10 hrs.

c) Fine aggregate (Sand)

  • Sand shall be natural sand obtained from the river or pit.
  • It shall consist of siliceous material having hard, strong, durable, uncoated particles.
  • Sand should be free from dust, soft or flaky particles or other deleterious substances.
  • All sand shall conform to IS 383-1952 and the relevant portion of IS 515-1959.

To know more about the use of sand in construction. Click Here

d) Water

  • Potable water shall be used for mixing mortar and curing.
  • Only the water sources recommended by Engineers should be used

2) Combination of materials in the proper way

Cement and sand are mixed in the proportion of 1:4 by volume or according to the specification provided during the contract.

  • Cement and sand shall be mixed in a mixer of the approved pattern at the site of work.
  • The drum shall be rotated for a minimum period of 2 minutes.
  • If the quantity of mortar to be mixed is less than 1m³ hand mixing shall be permitted.
  • Mixing shall be carried out on the smooth watertight platform of sufficient size to allow efficient turning of a mix.
  • The platform shall be so arranged that mixing in water shall not flow out and no foreign matter shall get mixed with mortar.
  • Cement and sand shall be thoroughly mixed to give a uniform color.
  • Cement and sand mixture shall be turned 3 times in dry condition and 3 times after adding water.

3) Preliminary work before laying bricks

a) Wetting bricks

  • All bricks shall be soaked in water for at least 2 hours before they are part of the work.
  • Brick shall not be too wet at the time of use, as they are likely to slip in the mortar bed and there will be difficulty in working.
  • Shocked bricks shall be in a clean place where they are not again spoilt by dirt.

b) Scaffolding

  • Double scaffolding shall be used.
  • It shall be sufficiently strong for all construction, operations and must be approved by the Engineer.

c) Old works

The tops of any walls where work is suspended shall be cleaned and thoroughly wetted before work is recommended.

4) Laying of brickwork

a) Laying

  • The brick shall be laid flush in cement mortar with frog upward in English bond unless otherwise specified.
  • The brickwork shall be true to the line in plumb.
  • When laying, the brick shall be slightly pressed so that the mortar can get into the pores of the brick surface.

b) Facework

  • Bricks of uniform color shall be used when the face work is not to be plastered.
  • Brick faces which are to be plastered or rendered shall have their joints raked back at least 12mm.

c) Joints

  • The joint shall not exceed 12mm in thickness.
  • The bed joint shall be truly horizontal and side joint truly vertical.

d) Uniform raising of bricks

  • Brickwork shall be carried out not more than the 90cm height at a time.
  • When one part of the wall has to be delayed, stepping shall be left at an angle of 45 degrees.

5) Curing and Protection of brickwork

  • The brickwork shall be kept wet for a period of at least 10 days after laying.
  • Wetting the brickwork shall be done either by spraying water or by keeping wet jute bags.
  • The brickwork shall be protected from the effects of sun, rain, frost by suitable coverings.

6) Mode of measurement and payment of brickwork

  • Brickwork shall be measured in cu.m. (cu ft).
  • Different kinds of walls with different kinds of mortars shall be treated differently.
  • The thickness of brickwork shall be taken as the multiple half bricks as half-brick 10cm, 1 brick 20 cm And so on.
  • The rate for brickwork shall include necessary materials, labor, and equipment for the proper execution of work and that all auxiliary work is included rates shall include the works at all the levels.

The above procedure is a standard method to perform brickwork. Every civil engineer should follow this working method at the site.

If you have any confusion read similar types of article: Specifications of Brickwork

You may also love to read: Calculation process to find the quantity of cement sand for plastering.

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How to calculate total bricks required for a room?

In this article, you will learn the calculation process to find total bricks required for a room.

Calculation process to find bricks required for a room

A) Calculate the size of Room

Generally, the standard size of the room is 12 feet long, 10 feet breadth and 10 feet in height.

And the width of the brick walls is 9 inches.

Length of walls of a room (L) = 12 ft x 2 + 10 ft x 2 = 44 ft
Total Length and breadth of walls of room = 44 ft
Breadth of brick wall (B) = 9″ = 0.75 ft
Height of the room(D) = 10 ft

Volume of brick-work = Length x width x Thickness of wall

= 44*.75*10

= 330 cubic ft =9.345 m³

Deduction of Door = L x B x D = 3 x 7 x 0.65 = ‐13.65 cubic feet
Deduction of Door Lintel = L x B x D = 3.4 x 0.4 x 0.65 = ‐0.884 cubic feet

Total Volume of brick work after deductions = 330 ‐ 13.65 – 0.884 = 315.466 cubic feet


  1. Brick size = 9” x 4.5” x 4” = 0.09375 cubic feet
  2. Thickness of mortar = 0.328 ft (10 mm)

B) Calculate total Bricks required for room

No. of bricks = Volume of brick-work / volume of 1 brick with mortar

= 315.466/0.1089

∴ No. of bricks = 2897 bricks

Volume of 1 Brick with mortar = 9.3937”× 4.8937” × 4.09375” = 188.189 cubic inch = 0.1089 cubic feet

Total Volume of brick:-

Volume of total no.of bricks = brick size in cubic feet x no. of bricks

= 0.09375 cubic feet * 2897 = 271.594

Quantity of mortar = Volume of brick-work with mortar – Volume of bricks

Quantity of mortar = 315.446 – 271.594 = 43.85 cubic feet

Mix Ratio of cement-sand –> 1:6

Dry volume of mortar = Wet volume x 1.53

∴ Dry volume of mortar = 43.85 cubic feet x 1.53

= 67.09 cubic feet

C) Calculate Quantity of cement required for room

Quantity of Cement = Dry Volume of mortar x Cement ratio/Sum of the ratio of mortar

∴Quantity of cement = (67.09 x 1) /(1+6)

= 9.584 cubic feet

Density of Cement = 1440 kg/m³ =40.807kg/cubic feet

∴ Weight of Cement = 40.807 x 9.584

= 391 Kg

1 bag of cement contains 50 kg of cement∴ Number of bags = 391 Kg / 50 k

= 7.82 No’s of bag

D) Calculate Quantity of Sand required for a room

Cement : Sand :: 1:6

Quantity of Sand = Quantity of Cement x 6

∴ Quantity of Sand = 9.584 cubic feet x 6

= 57.504 cubic feet

In this way, you can find total bricks required for a room.

Number of bricks required for house construction

You may also love to read: Calculation process to find the quantity of cement sand for plastering.

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Calculate the quantity of cement sand for plastering !!

In this article, you will learn the calculation process to find out the quantity of cement sand for plastering.

In engineering practice, we take the following points as reference for plastering work:

  1. For wall plastering, Cement Mortar Ratio used is 1:6
  2. For ceiling plastering, Cement Mortar Ratio used is 1:4
  3. Thickness of plastering should not be more than 12 mm.
  4. Cement & Sand should be mixed well.

For more information read this article: Tips you need to follow before, during and after plastering walls

To calculate the required quantity of Cement, Sand required for plastering we need to have the following data:

  1. Thickness of plaster
  2. Mix-ratio of cement sand
  3. Area to be plastered

Calculation process for finding the quantity of cement, sand, and water for plastering

For a civil engineer or constructor, it is important to know the exact amount of cement, sand required for plastering purposes before starting work.

Step 1:- Find out the Area to be plastered, thickness and mix ration of cement sand.

  • Area of Plaster = 100-meter square (Assumed)
  • Thickness of plaster = 12 mm =0.012 m
  • Mprtar Mix Ratio → 1:4

Step 2:- Find out Volume to be Plastered

  • Volume of plaster = Area of plaster x Thickness of plaster
  • Volume of plaster = 100 x 0.012 = 1.2 m³

Add 15-20% extra Quantity for Filling of joints & Wastage.

  • Volume of plaster = 1.2 + [ (1.2 x 15) /100 ] = 1.38m³

Since, Dry volume of materials is 53% more than wet volume so,

Dry Volume of material required for plaster = Wet volume x 1.53

  • Dry Volume = 1.38 x 1.53 = 2.1114 m³

Also Read: Method to calculate Quantity Of Soil/Sand For Filling Plot.

Step3:- To find Out the Quantity of Cement required for plastering

To find out the quantity of cement required for the plastering purpose it is calculated by:

Quantity of Cement = (Dry Volume of material required for plaster x Cement ratio) / (Sum of the ratio)

  • Quantity of cement = (2.1114 x 1) /(1+4)= 0.42228

We know that, the Density of Cement = 1440kg/m³

  • Weight of Cement = 1440 x 0.42228 = 608.083 Kg

Since, 1 bag of cement contain 50 kg of cements.

  • Number of bags = 608.083 Kg/50 = 12.161 No’s which is 13 bags.

Step 4:- To find out the Quantity of Sand required for plastering

Since, our cement and sand ratio is 1:4.

  • Total Quantity of Sand required= Quantity of Cement x 4
  • Total Quantity of Sand required= 0.42228 m³ x 4 = 1.68912 m³

Note: 1 m³=35.3147 Cubic Feet (CFT)

Total Quantity of sand = 1.68912 x 35.3147 = 59.65 CFT

We know that, the Density of sand = 1920 kg/m³

Weight of sand = 1.68912 x 1920 = 3243.11 kg

Step 5:- To find out the quantity of water required for cement sand mixture

The Quantity of water equals to 20% Total Dry material (cement & sand)

Quantity of water = 0.20 x (Weight of cement + Weight of sand )

Therefore, Quantity of water = 0.20 x (608.083 + 3243.11 ) = 770.23 kg = 770.23 Liters

NOTE: 100 Square meter is a huge area just for calculation purpose we assume that.

In this way, you can calculate the required quantity of cement sand for plastering the walls, ceilings.

You may also love to read: Methods to find out Quantities of Materials in Estimation

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How to calculate mortar quantity for brick wall?

Before going for the calculation process to find out the mortar quantity for brick wall. We must have to follow these steps carefully for the mixing process of mortar.

How to mix cement mortar?

  1. The mix should be by volume.
  2. The quantity of water should be such that the mix can be easily spread over bricks or
    applied on a vertical surface.
  3. The mix should be as per the specifications.
  4. Mortar should be used within half an hour of its preparation.

Now, lets come to the calculation process.

We assume that the required mortar for the construction of 1 m³ and the class of brick is first class and brickwork using the ration of 1:4 cement, sand mortar.

Calculation Procedure for finding mortar required for brick wall

Brick Size: An standard size of 230mm x  110mm x 55mm
Mortar Thickness: Assume 10mm thickness of mortar and add on standard dimensions of the brick i.e size of a brick with 10 mm mortar joint-240mmx120mmx65mm.
Estimate Brickwork (V):   Let’s assume V=1 m³

To Calculate the Number of Bricks:

Number of bricks for 1m³ brickwork

= Total brickwork volume / Volume of brick with mortar



= 535 no.

To Calculate the Total Volume of Brick  =  Actual size of brick x Number of brick

= 230mm x 120mm x 55mm x 535


=0.95 m³

Now, Wet Volume of Mortar   = Total volume – the total volume of a brick

= 1-0.081=0.187 m³

Usually, dry volume is 40-53% more than the wet volume so to calculate

Dry Volume of Mortar = wet volume of mortar x 1.5

= 1.5 x 0.187

= 0.2805 m³

We can also find out the volume of sand and the number of cement bags used in the 1 m³ brickwork.

As we already mentioned above we take the 1:4 cement-sand ratio in mortar.

First add the ratio i.e 1+4 = 5

Now, divide by the added ration and multiply that ration with the portion.

Volume of cement = (total dry volume of mortar / 5) x portion of cement in cement-sand mortar

= 0.2805/5

= 0.0561 m³

= 0.0561/0.034

= 1.65 bags

For the volume of the sand = (total dry volume of mortar /5)  x 4

=(0.2805/5) x 4 = 0.2244 m³

In this way, we can estimate the required mortar including the number of cement bags required and the volume of sand required for the specified mortar respectively.

Engineering Software

AutoCAD Commands Shortcut Key list

There are many AutoCAD Commands Shortcut Key used in AutoCAD software. In this article, all-important commands, AutoCAD shortcut keys that can help and save the time of AutoCAD users are mentioned.

i) Control Keys

  • Ctrl+n New Drawing
  • Ctrl+s Save drawing
  • Ctrl+o Open drawing
  • Ctrl+p Plot dialog box
  • Ctrl+Tab Switch to next
  • Ctrl+Shift+Tab Switch to the previous drawing
  • Ctrl+Page Up Switch to the previous tab in the current drawing
  • Ctrl+Page Down Switch to next tabin current drawing
  • Ctrl+q Exit
  • Ctrl+a Select all objects
  • Ctrl+c Copy object
  • Ctrl+x Cut object
  • Ctrl+v Paste object
  • Ctrl+Shift+c Copy to the clipboard with a base point
  • Ctrl+z Undo last action
  • Ctrl+y Redo last action
  • Ctrl+[ Cancel current command (or ctrl+\)
  • Ctrl+0 Clean Screen
  • Ctrl+1 Property Palette
  • Ctrl+2 Design Center Palette
  • Ctrl+3 Tool Palette
  • Ctrl+4 Sheet Set Palette
  • Ctrl+6 DBConnect Manager
  • Ctrl+7 Markup Set Manager Palette
  • Ctrl+8 Quick Calc
  • Ctrl+9 Command Line
  • ESC Cancel current command

ii) Toggle General Features

  • Ctrl+d Toggle coordinate display
  • Ctrl+g Toggle Grid
  • Ctrl+e Cycle isometric planes
  • Ctrl+f Toggle running object snaps
  • Ctrl+h Toggle Pick Style
  • Ctrl+Shift+h Toggle Hide pallets
  • Ctrl+i Toggle Coords
  • Ctrl+Shift+i Toggle Infer Constraints

iii) Function Keys

  • F1 Display Help
  • F2 Toggle text screen
  • F3 Toggle object snap mode
  • F4 Toggle 3DOsnap
  • F5 Toggle Isoplane
  • F6 Toggle Dynamic UCS
  • F7 Toggle grid mode
  • F8 Toggle ortho mode
  • F9 Toggle snap mode
  • F10 Toggle polar mode
  • F11 Toggle object snap tracking
  • F12 Toggle dynamic input mode

Basic AutoCAD shortcut keys

A – ARC / Creates an arc.

AA – AREA / Calculates the area and perimeter of objects or of defined areas.

ADC- ADCENTER / Manages and inserts content such as blocks, and hatch patterns.

AL ALIGN / Aligns objects with other objects

AR ARRAY / Creates multiple copies of objects in a pattern.

ARR ACTRECORD / Starts the Action Recorder.

ATI ATTIPEDIT / Changes the textual content of an attribute within a block.

B BLOCK / Creates a block definition from selected objects.

BH HATCH / Fills an enclosed area or selected objects with a hatch pattern, solid fill, or gradient fill.

BO BOUNDARY / Creates a region or a polyline from an enclosed area.

BR BREAK / Breaks the selected object between two points.

C CIRCLE / Creates a circle.

CAM CAMERA / Sets a camera and target location to create and save a 3D perspective view of objects.

CH PROPERTIES / Controls properties of existing objects.

CLI COMMANDLINE / Displays the Command Line window.

COL COLOR / Sets the color for new objects.

CO COPY / Copies objects a specified distance in a specified direction.

CT CTABLESTYLE / Sets the name of the current table style.

D DIMSTYLE / Creates and modifies dimension styles.

DS DSETTINGS / Sets grid and snap, polar and object snap tracking, object snap modes, Dynamic Input, and Quick Properties.

DT TEXT / Creates a single-line text object.

E ERASE / Removes objects from a drawing.

ED DDEDIT / Edits single-line text, dimension text, attribute definitions, and feature control frames.

EL ELLIPSE / Creates an ellipse or an elliptical arc.

EPDF EXPORT PDF / Exports drawing to PDF.

EXIT QUIT / Exit the program.

EXP EXPORT / Saves the objects in a drawing to a different file format.

EXT EXTRUDE / Extends the dimensions of a 2D object or 3D face into 3D space.

F FILLET / Rounds and fillets the edges of objects.

G GROUP / Creates and manages saved sets of objects called groups.

H HATCH / Fills an enclosed area or selected objects with a hatch pattern, solid fill, or gradient fill.

HE HATCHEDIT / Modifies an existing hatch or fill.

I INSERT / Inserts a block or drawing into the current drawing.

IMP IMPORT / Imports files of different formats into the current drawing.

IN INTERSECT / Creates a 3D solid, surface, or 2D region from overlapping solids, surfaces, or regions.

J JOIN / Joins similar objects to form a single, unbroken object.

L LINE / Creates straight line segments.

LA LAYER / Manages layers and layer properties.

LAS LAYERSTATE / Save restores and manages named layer states.

LEN LENGTHEN / Changes the length of objects and the included angle of arcs.

LI LIST / Displays property data for selected objects.

LO LAYOUT / Creates and modifies drawing layout tabs.

LT LINETYPE / Loads, sets, and modifies line types.

LTS LTSCALE / Changes the scale factor of line types for all objects in a drawing.

LW LWEIGHT / Sets the current line weight, line weight display options, and line weight units.

M MOVE / Moves objects a specified distance in a specified direction.

ME MEASURE / Creates point objects or blocks at measured intervals along the length or perimeter of an object.

MEA MEASUREGEOM / Measures the distance, radius, angle, area, and volume of selected objects or sequence of points.

MI MIRROR / Creates a mirrored copy of selected objects.

ML MLINE / Creates multiple parallel lines.

MLA MLEADERALIGN / Aligns and spaces selected multileader objects.

O OFFSET / Creates concentric circles, parallel lines, and parallel curves.

OP OPTIONS / Customizes the program settings.

OS OSNAP / Sets running object snap modes.

PA PASTESPEC / Pastes objects from the clipboard into the current drawing and controls the format of the data.

PL PLINE / Creates a 2D polyline.

PO POINT / Creates a point object.

PRE PREVIEW / Displays the drawing as it will be plotted.

PRINT PLOT / Plots a drawing to a plotter, printer, or file.

PU PURGE / Removes unused items, such as block definitions and layers, from the drawing.

PYR PYRAMID / Creates a 3D solid pyramid.

QC QUICKCALC / Opens the QuickCalc calculator.

QCUI QUICKCUI / Displays the Customize User Interface Editor in a collapsed state.

QP QUICKPROPERTIES / Displays open drawings and layouts in a drawing in preview images.

QSAVE QSAVE / Saves the current drawing.

QVD QVDRAWING / Displays open drawings and layouts in a drawing using preview images.

QVDC QVDRAWINGCLOSE / Closes preview images of open drawings and layouts in a drawing.

R REDRAW / Refreshes the display in the current viewport.

S STRETCH / Stretches objects crossed by a selection window or polygon.

SC SCALE / Enlarges or reduces selected objects, keeping the proportions of the object the same after scaling.

SCR SCRIPT / Executes a sequence of commands from a script file.

SEC SECTION / Uses the intersection of a plane and solids, surfaces, or mesh to create a region.

STA STANDARDS / Manages the association of standards files with drawings.

T MTEXT / Creates a multiline text object.

TB TABLE / Creates an empty table object.

TEDIT TEXTEDIT / Edits a dimensional constraint, dimension, or text object.

TI TILEMODE / Controls whether paper space can be accessed.

TO TOOLBAR / Displays, hides, and customizes toolbars.

TR TRIM / Trims objects to meet the edges of other objects.

UN UNITS / Controls coordinate and angle display formats and precision.

V VIEW / Saves and restores named views, camera views, layout views, and preset views.

W WBLOCK / Writes objects or a block to a new drawing file.

XL XLINE / Creates a line of infinite length.

Read similar type of Article: AutoCAD Command and Shortcut list

Also Read about: Composition of Brick

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Construction Road Transportation

Equipment used in Road Construction

Road construction technology is that branch of Highway Engineering which deals withal all kinds of activities and technology for changing the preexisting ground surface to the designed shape, slope and to provide all necessary facilities for smooth, safe, and efficient traffic operation. It also includes the reconstruction of existing roads.

Different types of tools, equipment, and plants are used for the construction of roads. Those civil engineering students who are planning to work on the road in the future should have knowledge about Tools, Equipment, and Plants used in Road construction.

Equipment generally refers to a set of tools used for a single purpose.

Different types of equipments used for different purposes of work in road construction.

  1. Rollers: For the compaction of soil Roller is used in road construction. It is used to compact the base, sub-base, and surface course. There are different types of rollers with having different specific functions. 
  2. Grader: A grader is used for grading the road. It is used for thin layer excavation in the longer area. It contains a grading blade that can be rotated so that collected materials can be pushed horizontally.
  3. Bitumen Boiler: To change the solid bitumen to a liquid or semi-solid state bitumen boiler is used. On the top of the bailer, a manhole is provided for inspection and bitumen charging. Earlier boilers fired with wood or coal, but modern boiler uses diesel fuel burners.
  4. Bitumen Distributor: A tank mounted on a truck used to carry liquid state bitumen. Heated bitumen in the form of liquid is fed to bitumen distributors. To maintain the temperature of bitumen it is equipped with burners. A bitumen spraying is attached to the tank which sprays bitumen in fan shape through the nozzle. spraying is done under pressure.
  5. Aggregate Spreader: In dump trucks, a spreading is fixed on its tali which spread aggregate uniformly throughout the road section where bitumen is sprayed. Nowadays latest aggregate spreaders contain both the bitumen as well as an aggregate spreader. From which first Bitumen spreads and then followed by aggregate spreaders. So combined work can be done in the latest technology spreaders.

These are the main equipment used in the construction of the road.

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