Science And Technology

Android 10: Know the Features of Google’s new operating system

Google is launching its latest version of the Android operating system later called Android Q now Android 10 soon. It has been told that this new version of Android comes with many new features.

According to the news, Google will provide system-wide dark mode features in Android Q. If this feature is available, the smartphone automatically has a dark mode activate based on the external environment.

According to a website called Android Police, which provides various news and disclosures may inside secrets about Android, the Google Wide Dark Mode feature in Android 10 will set the dark mode of smartphones on auto-unmatched times in sunrise and sunset.

That means that the smartphone itself will be in dark mode when it is dark, it will come out of Dark Mode while light or sunlight.

In fact it will work like the Night Light feature in the existing Android device.

android operating system

System-Wide Dark Mode Feature may look great. But there are some shortcomings to it.

After activating this feature, it will automatically work on sunrise and sunset. This feature can not be customized by turning on or off according to your required time. That means, even when you have to visit dark places on day, the dark mode will not be activated. Although on the user feedback and complaints, Google is customizing it. And it was expected that this feature will be updated soon.

The Android, as we’ve said, is only the first hours of Love, immobilized, the hour of the ideal made eternal prisoner” ― Auguste Villiers

#Android 10

According to the Android Police, there will also be a spectacular feature featuring the device’s battery-powered device in Android 10. This feature will be activated when the phone’s battery low. This reduces the phone’s brightness and will be taken into power saving mode while the battery is low. Due to which the battery consumption on the phone will be somehow less and the battery charge will take a little longer.

According to the news, apart from these features, facial reorganization, privacy control, app verification settings, desktop mode, built-in in-screen recorder, will also be features in Android 10.

Building Codes Codes

Download NBC Codes: Nepal National Building Code (NBC)

Nationa Building Code (NBC Codes) is a group of 23 codes. At first 20 codes are developed after that 3 codes, architectural code, electrical, and sanitation are added to NBC in 2060 B.S.

To Download NBC 105: 2020 Click Here

Why the National Building Code (NBC) is required in Nepal?

After the 2045 B.S earthquake that time his government felt that they require their own Building Code. More reasons are:

  1. Due to the lack of country code mostly engineers are forced to use other country building codes.
  2. Without considering the strength of materials people are constructing residential buildings.
  3. 10-15 years ago, about 95% of the building’s structures are built-up without taking the suggestion of any technicians or engineers.
  4. Even technicians do not have proper knowledge and idea about earthquake residential buildings.

Implementation of NBC Codes

From 2060/04/12, NBC is started to use in government and government shared construction buildings. Later in 2062/11/01 after the publish of Gadget NBC is implemented in 58 municipalities, 28 VDC where district headquarter lies at that time.

Before releasing it on government gadget to implement the NBC is started to use in Lalitpur metropolitan in 2059 B.S Magh-2 on the occasion of National Earthquake day.

Download NBC Codes: Nepal National Building Code

National Building Code (NBC) is a group of 23 codes. At first 20 codes are developed after that 3 codes, architectural code, electrical, and sanitation are added to NBC in 2060 B.S.

National Building Code(NBC) are sub categorized into 4 types:

1. International state-of-Art (SOA):

By using reference from the developed country building code you can design a building. Generally, while constructing important buildings, commercial buildings, stadium reference is taken from developed country code. It contains only one code.

Download International State-of-Art: NBC 000

2. Professionally Engineered Buildings (PEB):

Buildings having a plinth area of more than 1000 square feet or a structural span greater than 4.5-meter are categorized in Professionally Engineered Buildings (PEB). These buildings should be designed and built-in with guidelines of engineers.

Download Codes for Professionally Engineered Buildings:














3. Mandatory Rule of Thumb (MRT)

The main objective of these Mandatory Rules of Thumb (MRT) is to provide ready-to-use dimensions and details for various structural and non-structural elements for up to three-storey reinforced concrete (RC), framed, ordinary residential buildings commonly being built by owner-builders in Nepal. Their purpose is to replace the non-engineered construction presently adopted with pre-engineered construction. Now, it is mandatory to follow MRT while designing or constructing buildings in every municipality of Nepal.

Download Codes of Mandatory Rules of Thumb (MRT):




4. Guidelines for Remote Rural Buildings (GRB)

Guidelines for Remote Rural Buildings (GRB) guidelines are prepared in order to raise the seismic safety of low-strength masonry buildings and earthen buildings. These guidelines are intended to be implemented by the owner/builder with some assistance from the technicians.

Download Guidelines for Remote Rural Buildings (GRB) Codes:



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Engineering Software ETABS

ETABS Shortcut keys !! Very Useful For ETABS

ETABS is engineering software used for structural analysis and design of buildings. In the engineering field mostly engineers prefer to work in ETABS because of its flexibility and user friendly. It is created by American based company CSI.

ETABS is very much useful for structural engineers as well as a civil engineer. For structural analysis, we use various standard codes as references that are pre-defined on ETABS. Manually it takes hours even a day or more than that to analyze and do complex calculations.

Why do you need to use ETABS?

  • It saves time as well as you need to put less effort into the structural analysis.
  • Easy and user friendly.
  • Easily you can check the stability of the structure.
  • It calculated the seismic and wind load properly.
  • You can easily find out the required amount of reinforcement.
  • You can see the 3D view of structure, plan, and elevation at the same time.

Now, lets come to the main topic of the article. While working with ETABS software if we prefer the use of shortcut keys instead of going to an individual menu for each time, it will dramatically save our time. ETABS have limited numbers of shortcut keys as compare to AutoCAD among them if we remember 20/30 shortcut keys that will be enough for design and analysis work for structures.

ETABS Shortcut Keys list :

1. File Menu

  • Ctrl+N –New Model
  • Ctrl+O – Open File
  • Ctrl+Shift+E – File Close
  • Ctrl+ S – Save File
  • Ctrl+P – Print Graphics
  • Ctrl+Shift+C – Comments and Log
  • Ctrl+Shift+F -Show Input/Output Text Files
  • Alt+F4 – Exit
  • Ctrl+Shift+5 – Capture Picture > Entire Screen
  • Ctrl+Shift+6 – Capture Picture > Current Window / Titlebar
  • Ctrl+Shift+9 – Capture Picture > Current Window as Enhanced Meta file

2. Edit Menu

  • Ctrl+Z – Undo
  • Ctrl+Y – Redo
  • Ctrl+X – Cut
  • Ctrl+C – Copy
  • Ctrl+V – Paste
  • Ctrl+R – Replicate
  • Ctrl+Shift+M – Align Joints/Frames/Edges
  • Ctrl+M – Move Joints/Frames/Shells
  • Delete – Delete

3. View Menu

  • Ctrl+Shift+F1 – Set Plan View
  • Ctrl+Shift+F2 – Set Elevation View
  • Ctrl+Shift+F3 – Set 3D View
  • Ctrl+D – Set Grid System Visibility
  • Ctrl+W – Set Display Options
  • F2 – Rubber Band Zoom
  • F3 – Restore Full View (Zoom All)
  • Shift+F2 – Zoom In One Step
  • Shift+F3 – Zoom Out One Step
  • F10 – Pan
  • Ctrl+Shift+A – Show All Objects
  • Ctrl+Shift+J – Show Selected Objects Only
  • Ctrl+Shift+W – Refresh Window
  • Ctrl+Shift+V – Refresh View

4. Select Menu

  • Ctrl+A – Select All
  • Ctrl+G – Select Groups
  • Ctrl+J – Get Previous Selection
  • Ctrl+K – Invert Selection
  • Ctrl+Q – Clear Selection
  • Ctrl+Shift+L – Intersecting Line
  • Ctrl+Shift+O – Poly
  • Ctrl+Shift+P – Intersecting Poly

5. Analyze Menu

  • F4 – Undeformed Shape
  • F5 – Run Analysis

6. Display Menu

  • F6 – Deformed Shape
  • F12 – Plot Functions
  • Ctrl+T – Show Tables
  • F7 – Force/Stress Diagrams > Support/Spring Reactions
  • F8 – Force/Stress Diagrams > Frame/Pier/Spandrel/Link Forces
  • F9 – Force/Stress Diagrams > Shell Stresses/Forces

7. Design Menu

  • Shift+F5 – Steel Frame Design > Start Design/Check
  • Ctrl+Shift+F5 – Steel Frame Design > Display Design Info
  • Shift+F6 – Concrete Frame Design > Start Design/Check
  • Ctrl+Shift+F6 – Concrete Frame Design > Display Design Info
  • Shift+F7 – Composite Beam Design > Start Design/Check
  • Ctrl+Shift+F7 – Composite Beam Design > Display Design Info
  • Shift+F8 – Composite Column Design > Start Design/Check
  • Ctrl+Shift+F8 – Composite Column Design > Display Design Info
  • Shift+F9 – Steel Connection Design > Start Design/Check
  • Ctrl+Shift+F9 – Steel Connection Design > Display Design Info
  • Shift+F10 – Shear Wall Design > Start Design/Check
  • Ctrl+Shift+F10 – Shear Wall Design > Display Design Info

8. Other shortcut keys

  • Ctrl+U – Display Unit
  • F1 – ETABS Help
  • Ctrl+L – Change Language to
Etab Shortcut Keys List
Etab ShortcutKey List1

You may also searching for: AutoCAD Shortcut Keys

Tips & Tricks

How to write a proposal for engineering projects?

The proposal is a written document designed or prepared to persuade a customer, company, government to –

  1. get the project, contract or tender
  2. win quotation or purchase a product
  3. receive funding (grant proposal)

Preparing a proposal for engineering projects is tough work and challenge. You need to submit a detailed plan for the projects to get approval from an organization or a person in a position of authority.

The purpose of the proposal is to inform the reader, a problem or need, offer a solution and give a broad overview of how the proposed solution will work and how much it will cost.

The quality of the proposal depends not only on the quality of the proposed project, but also on the quality of proposal writing. Proposal and reports have similar formats with few exceptions. Many of the similar components are found both in reports and proposals.

How to write a proposal for projects ?

Proposal for the projects is mainly divided into 3 parts. Front

i) Front Body / Front PartMain Body

Back Body / Back Part

i) Front Body

  1. Cover letter/ letter of transmittal: Clearly mention what and why you are writing. Point out the importance of what you are proposing and explain what your next step will be as a follow up. It includes purpose, subject, importance and date of plan.
  2. Title page: It includes the title, name and address of proposal writer and the recipient and the date submitted. Title should be informative and catchy. An effective title not only excites the reader’s interest but also influence him/her favorably towards the proposal.
  3. Acknowledgement: express your thanks or gratitude to everyone who helped you to write the proposal.
  4. Table of contents: headings and subheadings with their corresponding page numbers.
  5. List of tables and illustrations: if you see tables, illustrations and images list them by titles and page numbers.
  6. Executive summary: it is a brief synopsis of the proposal focusing on the problem, solution and benefit.

ii) Main body

A) Introduction

Introduction provides the necessary background or context of research problem. It gives a brief overview of the contents of the document and presents a persuasive statement about the feasibility of the project. It does so by explaining why the current situation is inadequate and why it needs to be change.

Key questions to answer while writing introduction. 
Does your introductory section
  1. Clearly establish who you are?
  2. Describe your organizational goals?
  3. Establish your credibility in the project topic area?
  4. Lead logically to the problem statement?
  5. Statement of problem or need: It represents the reason behind your proposal. It specifies the conditions you wish to change. It should be supported by evidence drawn from your experience, from statistics provided by authoritative sources and from appropriate literature review. Your problem statement should quickly summarize the problem, show your familiarity with prior research or work on the topic, reinforce your credibility for investigating the problem and justify why this problem should be investigated. It carries the following characteristics: 

Problem statement should be understandable

  1. There should be the relationship between project or organizational goals and set of problems.
  2. Justify why the problem should be of special interest to the sponsor.
  3. Demonstrate your problem is feasible to solve.
  4. Problems and outputs should be mentioned in terms of social needs and benefits.

B) Purpose of the study

specify the reasons for writing the proposal, set the objective clearly and define key terms and phrases. It is an important to state your objectives clearly. Central concept or idea of the study should be clearly defined.

As you write the objective section, answer these questions. Does the section
  1. Clearly describe your project’s objective, hypothesis and research question?
  2. Demonstrate that your objectives are important, significant and timely?
  3. Include objectives that comprehensively describe the intended outcomes of the project?
  4. State your objectives, hypothesis or questions in a way that they can be evaluated later?
  5. Demonstrate why your project’s outcome is appropriate and important to the sponsor?
  6. Methodology: this method section describes your project activities in detail, indicating how your objectives will be accomplish. It will provide a work plan and describe the activities necessary for the completion of the project. The description should include the sequence, flow and interrelationship of activities as well as planned staffing for the project.

C) Data collection

you will probably need to collect data as a part of a project. Common data collection methods include:

  1. Questionnaire
  2. Achievement tests
  3. Psychological tests
  4. Clinical examinations
  5. Personal diaries, interviews
  6. Survey or field visits.

D) Limitations and delimitation

A limitation identifies potential weakness of the study and delimitation addresses how a study will be narrowed in scope that is how it is bounded. This is the place to explain the things that you are not doing and why you have chosen not to do them – the literature you will not review (and why not), the population you are not studying( and why not) the methodology you will not use( and why not).

E) Feasibility

When you write a proposal you must clearly state that whether the project that you would like to get Is feasible or not. You must show that it is feasible on two important grounds:

Economically feasible:  you must show that the project would be feasible economically, that is it will make profit and not loss.

Technically feasible: some projects may appear to be profitable but you also have to show that you have the enough technology and resources to complete it.

F) Necessary sources and budgeting

The researcher should mention the available sources and necessary sources to conduct the research. The source of local material and human support can be the local community which alleviates the way of research.

The researcher needs to state the estimated budget along with the available sources to complete the task within the specified time period.

G) Evaluation

While undertaking any project, it is very important to evaluate it. It is supposed to solve the existing problems and bring happiness in the people. After the completion of the project there should be the remarkable benefit to the concerned people. That is to say you have to answer the question.

Has your project achieved the goals or objectives?

Is your project result oriented?

iii) Back Body / Back Part

  1. Glossary/ abbreviations: list of key vocabularies, abbreviations and acronyms.
  2. References: list of books, journals, articles and online sources used in the proposal.
  3. Appendices: these may include maps, diagrams, photos, charts and figures.

In this way you can write a great proposal for different projects in civil engineering fields as well as for others fields.

Are people benefiting from your project?

Hopeful you are clear about the confusion of

How to write a proposal?

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Tips & Tricks

Report writing method for engineering projects !!!!

Report is an objective communication of factual information that serves for business purposes.

Why we need to write a report?

In professional life, you need to have report writing skills. Like, I’m in the civil engineering field. Before starting any projects we need to make the DPR of those projects. For that, we need a basic skill of writing and need to follow the standard pattern/method. If you are working on any projects then either you need to write a daily/weekly work progress report.

Although there are various types of reports in our life that we encounter. We have a news report, a biology lab report, a physics experiment report, a technical report, etc.

If you are in construction field usually your superiors or boss, may need certain information regarding their business or construction, factory, lab, etc and there might come some problems and there is the need for information and suggestions to solve these problems.

In such a situation he/she will authorize certain people in his/her organization or outside to investigate the matter, submit him/her the required data and information, and also suggestions and recommendations to solve the problems. Therefore it is clear that we must identify and state the problems before we begin to write a report.

Write both positive and negative points on the report.

How to write a report?

Here, I divide the report into two parts so it will be easy to understand and write a report.

During the report writing process, you need to follow it.

  • First part:- what we write on which page, what information they will get.
  • Second parts:- which we write a report with data, conclusion, and references.

A) First Part of the report

  1. Title:
    • The title is the first page or cover of the report that contains only the title of the report.
    • The title page presents the report title. It displays information essential to report’s identification.
    • It should include identification of the report writer, authorize or recipient of the report (to whom the report is written)
  2. Acknowledgments:
    • Briefly thank people who offered help in collecting the information for the report.
    • This help may be from librarians, technicians, computer center staff, friends, family members, and others.
  3. Abstract or executive summary:
    • It provides a summary of the entire work.
    • It should include a short statement of the main task, the methods used, a conclusion reached, and any recommendations to be made.
    • It should be concise, informative, and independent of the report by highlighting purpose, findings, and results.
  4. Table of contents(TOC):
    • It is the list of main sections with their page numbers.
    • They help direct the reader to the key sections in the report and show the contents of the report in a logical order.
  5. List of Tables and illustrations:
    • list any illustrations, graphs, tables, charts etc and their page numbers.
  6. Appendices:
    • An appendix contains additional information related to the report.
    • If you use supplementary materials in the process of research or writing the report such as questionnaires, interview transcripts, a list of interviewees, survey forms, letters, maps, graphics, and photos, you will need appendices.
numerical data in report
Collect data related to the the topic of your report.

Note: Before going to the second part of the report. To write a good report you need to have good knowledge of that topic. Collect some numerical data as well as some facts related to the report topic.

B) Second Part of the Report

  1. Introduction:
    • This is the background that may describe how the project came into being. It is the description of the report in detail.
  2. Objective:
    • This section describes the main motto or objective to write the report.
    • Mention the aims and objectives to clarify the context of the report.
    • Explain why the report is requested.
    • Describe the scope of the subject matter in detail.
  3. Methodology:
    • This section clearly states the method used for your investigation, identifying the design of your research and why this method was chosen.
    • It explains how data was gathered (interviews, surveys, observations, discussions, etc. so readers can see how relevant and thorough the writer has been in research.
  4. Results or findings:
    • This section objectively reports the findings or results such as descriptions, statistical data, charts, and graphs.
    • Some of the ways to present results are tables, graphs, pie charts, bar charts, diagrams, etc.
  5. Discussion:
    • This is the section in which results can be interpreted and analyzed drawing from the collected information.
    • Here is the identification of important issues, suggestions, and explanations of findings.
  6. Conclusion and recommendation:
    • This is the section of the report which draws together the main issues.
    • It wraps up the report by summarizing key points but not introducing any new material.
    • It includes the writer’s logical assessment of what has been discovered.
    • The recommendation can put in a separate section or include them with a conclusion.
    • In recommendation, there is a possible solution to the problems identified in the report from the side of readers.
  7. References:
    • There is the full list of books, articles, and internet sources you cite to write the report.
    • Here includes: author’s name and initials, date of publication, the title of the book, publisher, place of publication, page numbers.

In this way, you can write a report on any topic for any projects!!! 😀

If you have any confusion about report writing you can message us at Facebook page Ravi Dhami.


Highway Drainage: Effects & types of highway drainage

Highway Drainage is the process of interception and removal of water from over, under and the vicinity of the road surface. After the precipitation, apart of water is lost by evaporation and transportation. A part is percolated and the remaining water is called surface water. The process of removal or diversion of this water is called surface drainage.

There is a water table below the subgrade of the road. The measures adopted to lower the water table is known as sub-surface drainage.

Types of Highway Drainage

1. Drainage in rural highway

The surface water is drained from the pavement surface through side drain which may be unlined and open. This side drain is trapezoidal in shape and provided at the suitable cross and longitudinal slope.

Drainage in rural highway

In the case of the embankment, the longitudinal drains are provided either on one side or both sides. In the case of cutting drainage is provided on both sides.

2. Drainage in urban streets

In urban areas, there is space restriction due to foot-path, dividing islands, etc. So, underground longitudinal drains are provided at the sides of the road.

Water drained from the pavement surface is carried forward in a longitudinal direction between the curve and the pavement for a short distance. This water is collected in catch pits at suitable intervals and led through an underground drainage pipe.

3. Drainage in hill road

Road drainage along with the water flowing down the hill should be efficiently disposal off down the hill constructing suitable cross drainage structures like drainage bridge, culvert, etc.

There should also be the provision of a catch drain at the upper hillside and side drains at the side of the road.

Effects and Importance of Highway Drainage system

  1. It decreases the bearing capacity of the subgrade of the road.
  2. Standing water on the highway reduces the coefficient of friction which is a danger for the high-speed traffic.
  3. Formation of put holes, waves, and corrugation in the flexible pavement.
  4. Water causes mud pumping in the rigid pavement.
  5. It causes the erosion of the side slope.
  6. It may cause the failure of a side formation slope.
  7. Frost action at the cold region or during the winter season may cause the failure of the subgrade of the road.
  8. We need huge amounts of money yearly in high maintenance.

Causes of moisture variation in sub-grade soil

The main causes of moisture variation can be grouped as:

A) By free water

  • Seepage of water from higher ground level.
  • Penetration of water through pavement.
  • Transfer of moisture from shoulder and edge of the pavement.

B) By ground water

  • Rise and fall of the water table.
  • Capillary rise from lower soil level.
  • Transfer of water vapor through the soil.

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Construction HydroPower

Tunnels and factor affecting the tunnelings

Tunnels are artificial underground passages constructed for various purposes like transportation, navigation, water supply, sewer, hydro-power, public utility, canals, etc.

In this article, we mainly discuss the point should consider while selecting the alignment of the tunnel. And also the necessary things such as Tunnel Drainage, Lighting Of Tunnels, Tunnel Ventilation and Lining In Tunnel respectively.

While selecting the alignment of the tunnel following points should be considered :

  • The route should as short as possible
  • The straight path is preferred
  • Easily accessible
  • Careful selection of entry and exit location

Factors affecting the tunneling

  • Land topography
  • Geological selection of the alignment
  • Hard rocks
  • Groundwater
  • Creep or tectonic movements

Factor need to consider while doing work of alignment of the tunnel

1. Tunnel Drainage

PRE DRAINAGE: A drainage arrangement before the construction of the tunnel is known as pre-drainage.

DE-WATERING: It is the drainage arrangement that is carried out during the construction time of the tunnel.

PERMANENT DRAINAGE: The methods of permanent drainages are:

  1. Provision of longitudinal pipelines
  2. Concrete lining
  3. Grouting with cement or chemicals

2. Lighting Of Tunnels

The lighting of the tunnel is a very important environmental factor to utilize the full efficiency of manpower or machine involved in work with proper safety.

The minimum requirements for lighting in tunnel are as follows:

  • Adequate lighting should be provided at each and every point
  • Lighting at the working face should be provided
  • Lamps should be fixed at both sides and center
  • Hauling equipment should have their own lighting system
  • Excavating equipment and other heavy equipment should have their own lighting system

3. Tunnel Ventilation

Ventilation is the process of replacing used air with fresh air. It is done by both artificial and natural methods.

Objectives of ventilation:

  • To replace the used air by fresh air
  • To remove harmful gases
  • Supply adequate amount of oxygen to workers
  • Remove the excessive amount of moisture present inside the tunnel.

4. Lining In Tunnel

Tunnel lining is a part of the support design provides inside the construction area of tunnels. Lining can be done by brick, timber, concrete, stone, rock reinforcement, steel, etc.

Objectives of lining in tunnel:

  • It withstand the soil pressure
  • It gives support to loose soil
  • Provides proper shape to the tunnel
  • It strengthen the weak portion
  • It makes the tunnel free from water penetration
  • To ensure streamline flow for water tunnels.

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How to calculate the water-cement ratio for concrete?

Water Cement Ratio means the ratio of the weight of water to the weight of cement used in the concrete mixture.

Or in easy words it is the amount of water required in the cement concrete mixture.
As we know that water cement ratio directly affects the strength of concrete. So, by being in limits of water-cement ration for concrete mixture to get the good strength of concrete.

Why we Use Water to make concrete mixture?

There are no other cheapest and easily available things which can be used to mix cement with aggregate to make a concrete. If we don’t use the water we can not mix cement with aggregate to make concrete mixture.

And also, water perform great role in Concrete, therefore water is the main key for Cement concrete which can combine all the material with each other.

According to the ration of water-cement we get strength on any Construction work. Besides the quantity of water in concrete, the quality of water used in concrete have important effects on fresh concrete properties, such as setting time as well as work-ability.  Also it have important effects on the strength and durability of concrete.

Water cement ratio table

As per IS Code 10262.

Now, let us take a example to calculate the W/C ratio..

We need to know following thing to calculate water cement ratio:

  1. Grade of concrete. Eg: M25, M20, M10 etc.
  2. Amount of cement per m³.
  3. Water-cement ratio.

Calculation Procedure

Let us assume, Grade of concrete is M15.

Let, Cement required for 1 m³ of M15 grade concrete be 6 bags.

Each bag of cement contains 50 kg of cement.

∴ 6*50 = 300 Kg of cement required.

Let’s assume that the water cement ratio is 0.5.

Formula used to find W/C ratio:

W/c ratio =Water content /Cement content

Water content = Cement content x W/c ratio

Water content = 300 Kg x 0.5 = 150 Kg.

Here, 1 Kg =1 liter

So water content = 150 Kg. = 150 Litres

Add 3-5% wastage of water during mixing, handling,

We used 5%,

∴ Total Water content = 5× 150/100 + 150 = 157.5 liters.

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Selection of the bridge site

A structure constructed over an obstacle to provide safe passage is known as a bridge.

A passage for the movement of traffic is known as a rad bridge. If the level of the bridge is much higher than the level of the road, then it is over a bridge. Similarly, if the level of the bridge is below the ground level it is called the subway.

Characteristics Of Bridge

  1. Line of the bridge should not have a serious deviation from the line of the road.
  2. Bridge should be properly levelled.
  3. Width of a bridge should be sufficient for the traffic.
  4. Foundation should be kept on strong ground and at sufficient depth
  5. It should be as economical as possible in terms of construction and maintenance
  6. It should provide the passage for services like water pipes telephone wires etc.

Selection of the bridge site

In field we take account of different things, while selecting the bridge site. One basic thing we consider is “SESE’ where S= small, E= economical, S= safe and E= earlier.

  1. A straight section of bridge should be choosen
  2. Steady river flow without any serious whirls and cross current
  3. The channel should be as narrow as possible with firm banks
  4. Suitable high river banks on each side above the high flood level
  5. Absence of expensive river training works
  6. Absence of expensive under water construction works
  7. Long detours should be avoided
  8. The bridge axis should be free from geological folds and faults

Classification Of Bridge

According to the span (NRS 2045)

  • Culvert (length up to 6m)
  • Minor bridge (span less than 20 m but total length may be up to 20 m)
  • Medium bridge (span less than 20 m but total length more than 20 m)
  • Major bridge (span and whole length of bridge more than 20m)

According to the structures

  • RCC bridge
  • Cantilever bridge
  • Arch bridge
  • Truss bridge
  • Stayed cable bridge
  • Beam bridge
  • Suspension bridge
  • Movable bridge

According to materials used

  • Timber bridge
  • RCC bridge
  • Masonry bridge
  • Steel bridge

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Bricks Building Materials

Classification of Bricks

This article is on the Classification of Bricks Based on Quality. In this article, you will learn about the different classes of bricks with important characteristics/properties.

This article will be helpful and informative for civil engineers and civil engineering students.

You may also love to read: 10 quality of bricks used in building construction

Classification of Bricks

1. First Class brick

First-class brick is mainly used for load-bearing walls for multi-story buildings.

Characteristics of first-class brick are as follows:

  1. Color: Uniform dark red color
  2. Size and Shape: Should have a standard size and have a smooth surface free from
    cracks and should have sharp edges
  3. Soundness: When two bricks stuck together, they should give metallic sound.
  4. Hardness: It should be hard that it could not be scratched by fingernails.
  5. Porosity: It should not absorb water more than 15 % of its dry weight when immerse-
    in water for 24 hrs
  6. Strength: Minimum crossing strength should not be less than 140 kg/cm2
  7. Water absorption should be less than 15 % of its dry weight.
  8. Durability: Should be able to resist the effects of weathering agencies like temperature variations, rain, frost action, etc.
  9. Efflorescence: Should not contain alkaline salts which may cause efflorescence
    on its surface and decay the bricks.

2. Second Class Brick

Second class bricks are not suitable for the load-bearing walls for more than two-story buildings.

Characteristics of second class brick are as follows:

  1. It should not absorb water more than 20% to 22% of its dry weight when immersed in water for 24 hrs.
  2. The compressive strength of second class bricks is between 70 to 140 kg/cm2.
  3. Medium red in color.
  4. The shape and size are good.
  5. These bricks are burnt well.

3. Third Class Brick

The third class of bricks is generally used for temporary works.

Characteristics of third class brick are as follows:

  1. It should not absorb water more than 22% to 25% of its dry weight when immersed in water for 24 hrs.
  2. The compressive strength of third class bricks is between 35 to 70 kg/cm2.
  3. Light red in color.
  4. The shape and size are poor
  5. These bricks are not burnt well and weak.

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Bricks Building Materials

Composition of Brick

Bricks may define as a structural unit of rectangular shape and convenient site that is made from suitable types of clays by different processes involving molding, drying, and burning. In this article, you will learn about the materials used to make brick and its properties.

Even at present, brick is the most basic and favored material for common constructions though out the world.

The popularity of brick as a material of constructions is because of their local and cheap availability, strength, durability, reliability and insulating property against heat and sound.

Composition of brick or materials used in making brick

In general, it is observed that any soil that contains one-fourth part of clay and three by fourth parts of sand and silt is suitable for making bricks.

Good brick earth should be such that when prepared with water it can be easily molded dried and burnt without cracking or warping. It should contain a small quality at finely divided lime to help in binding the particles of brick together by melting the particles of sand.

A little oxide of iron should also be present which would give the brick its peculiar red color and act as a flux in the same manner as lime.

However, suitable brick earth should have various constituents in the following proportion.

i) Alumina or clay (20% – 30%)

  1. It shows the plastic character to the clay in wet conditions and is capable of being molded to any shape.
  2. When alumina is greater than 30% brick will become more plastic and also shrink more and develop cracks on drying.
  3. If less than 20%, it may be difficult to mold to proper shapes and develop cracks on a molding. So it provides plasticity resistance against shrinkage and makes the brick hard.

ii) Silica or sand (50% to 60%)

  1. Silica is present in much clay in two forms as a constituent of clay minerals and also as free. It is in the form of sand or quartz.
  2. Silica is infusible except at very high temperature but in the presence of alumina is nearly equal proportions and the oxide of iron it fuses at low temperature.
  3. Unlike the silicate of Alumina, its presence in clay produces hardness, resistance to heat, durability and prevents shrinkage and warping.
  4. Excess of it makes the bricks brittle.

iii) Lime (4% to 6%)

  1. When present in small quantities in the finely divided state it reduces shrinkage of brick, helps silica to melt at lower temperature and binds the particles of the brick together resulting in greater strength of brick.
  2. Excess of lime causes the brick to melt and lose its shape.

You may also love to read: 10 quality of bricks used in building construction

iv) Iron oxide (4% to 6%)

  1. Iron oxide acts as a flux, it lowers down the softening temperature of silica and other clay components during firing.
  2. The iron oxide imparts the very characteristic red color to the burnt brick.
  3. The excess of iron oxide makes the brick too soft during the burning stage, they suffer deformation in shape and make the dark blue color.
  4. A deficiency of iron oxide in the clay may make their burning difficult and also give then a yellowish appearance.

v) Magnesia: (1% to 2%)

  1. Small qualities at magnesia in brick earth make the brick of yellowish color and reduce shrinkage.
  2. But excess of magnesia leads to the delay of bricks.

If you are confused or unclear about this topic. Kindly check out a similar type of article by civil today: Click Here

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Triple Bitumen Surface Dressing

Triple bitumen surface dressing is carried out to improve the condition of existing bitumen paved roads and to protect the base course. It does not have any specific thickness. The thickness varies as per requirement. A thin layer of bituminous material is laced over the existing pavement with aggregates and rolled.

Materials Required For Construction Of Bitumen Surface Dressing!!

The coarse aggregates should be of crushed stones. It should be clean, strong and durable having the following properties:

  1. Los angles abrasion value (LAA) = 35%
  2. Aggregate impact value (AIV) = 30%
  3. Flakiness index(FI) = 25%
  4. Water absorption = 1%
  5. Stripping value = 25%

Plants AND Equipment’s Required for Bitumen Surface Dressing !!

  1. Bitumen heating device
  2. Mechanical sweeper
  3. Bitumen Sprayer
  4. Pneumatic roller
  5. Aggregate spreader

Construction Steps for Triple Bitumen Surface Dressing!!

  1. Preparation of existing surface
  2. Application of prime coat or tack coat
  3. Application of 16-18 mm stone chippings.
  4. Rolling the pneumatic roller over the first coat for at least four passes
  5. Opening to traffic with a controlled lower speed of less than 10 kph for a couple of weeks
  6. Brooming is done and the loose aggregates are cleaned.
  7. Application of binder material and 10 mm stone chipping for a second coat.
  8. Rolling off the second coat by pneumatic roller for at least four passes.
  9. Opening to traffic with a controlled lower speed of less than 10 kph for one or two weeks
  10.  Once again brooming and cleaning of loose aggregates is done.
  11.  For the third coat, the binder is applied with 8 mm stone chippings
  12.  A pneumatic roller is passed over the third coat at least four passes.
  13.  Finishing and opening to traffic.
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Estimation Technical Specifications

Brickwork with Cement Mortar – Specification

This article will help you to understand the detailed procedure used while working on brickwork.

While working at the site engineer, as well as constructor need to follow the specific guideline to achieve an effective working result.

Read the detail specification of Brickwork with Cement mortar and follow the guidelines while working at the site.

Brickwork Specification – Procedure for Brickwork

1) Selection of Materials for Brickwork

For the good quality of work, you need to select the good quality of materials. While selecting the materials for brickwork you need to follow the standard guidelines and code.

a) Bricks

  • Bricks shall be a uniform size, thoroughly well burnt but not over burnt.
  • The bricks shall have rectangular faces with parallel sides and shall have sharp, straight right-angled edges.
  • Brick should give clear metallic sound when struck and shall be free from lumps cracks, chips, flaws, etc.
  • On saturation, the increase in weight shall not exceed 20% of dry weight when tested according to IS:1077-1957.
  • And, Crushing strength of the brick shall not be less than 40kg/cm² when dry and 30kg/cm² when saturated.

To know more about the top quality of bricks. Click Here.

b) Cement

  • The cement should conform to I.S. 269-1976.
  • Ordinary Portland cement should be used unless otherwise specified.
  • The weight of О.Р.С. should be 1440 kg/m³ and rapid hardening Portland cement should be 1210kg/m³.
  • The minimum compressive strength of OPC should be 25kg/cm².
  • The initial setting time should not be less than 30 min and the final should not less than 10 hrs.

c) Fine aggregate (Sand)

  • Sand shall be natural sand obtained from the river or pit.
  • It shall consist of siliceous material having hard, strong, durable, uncoated particles.
  • Sand should be free from dust, soft or flaky particles or other deleterious substances.
  • All sand shall conform to IS 383-1952 and the relevant portion of IS 515-1959.

To know more about the use of sand in construction. Click Here

d) Water

  • Potable water shall be used for mixing mortar and curing.
  • Only the water sources recommended by Engineers should be used

2) Combination of materials in the proper way

Cement and sand are mixed in the proportion of 1:4 by volume or according to the specification provided during the contract.

  • Cement and sand shall be mixed in a mixer of the approved pattern at the site of work.
  • The drum shall be rotated for a minimum period of 2 minutes.
  • If the quantity of mortar to be mixed is less than 1m³ hand mixing shall be permitted.
  • Mixing shall be carried out on the smooth watertight platform of sufficient size to allow efficient turning of a mix.
  • The platform shall be so arranged that mixing in water shall not flow out and no foreign matter shall get mixed with mortar.
  • Cement and sand shall be thoroughly mixed to give a uniform color.
  • Cement and sand mixture shall be turned 3 times in dry condition and 3 times after adding water.

3) Preliminary work before laying bricks

a) Wetting bricks

  • All bricks shall be soaked in water for at least 2 hours before they are part of the work.
  • Brick shall not be too wet at the time of use, as they are likely to slip in the mortar bed and there will be difficulty in working.
  • Shocked bricks shall be in a clean place where they are not again spoilt by dirt.

b) Scaffolding

  • Double scaffolding shall be used.
  • It shall be sufficiently strong for all construction, operations and must be approved by the Engineer.

c) Old works

The tops of any walls where work is suspended shall be cleaned and thoroughly wetted before work is recommended.

4) Laying of brickwork

a) Laying

  • The brick shall be laid flush in cement mortar with frog upward in English bond unless otherwise specified.
  • The brickwork shall be true to the line in plumb.
  • When laying, the brick shall be slightly pressed so that the mortar can get into the pores of the brick surface.

b) Facework

  • Bricks of uniform color shall be used when the face work is not to be plastered.
  • Brick faces which are to be plastered or rendered shall have their joints raked back at least 12mm.

c) Joints

  • The joint shall not exceed 12mm in thickness.
  • The bed joint shall be truly horizontal and side joint truly vertical.

d) Uniform raising of bricks

  • Brickwork shall be carried out not more than the 90cm height at a time.
  • When one part of the wall has to be delayed, stepping shall be left at an angle of 45 degrees.

5) Curing and Protection of brickwork

  • The brickwork shall be kept wet for a period of at least 10 days after laying.
  • Wetting the brickwork shall be done either by spraying water or by keeping wet jute bags.
  • The brickwork shall be protected from the effects of sun, rain, frost by suitable coverings.

6) Mode of measurement and payment of brickwork

  • Brickwork shall be measured in cu.m. (cu ft).
  • Different kinds of walls with different kinds of mortars shall be treated differently.
  • The thickness of brickwork shall be taken as the multiple half bricks as half-brick 10cm, 1 brick 20 cm And so on.
  • The rate for brickwork shall include necessary materials, labor, and equipment for the proper execution of work and that all auxiliary work is included rates shall include the works at all the levels.

The above procedure is a standard method to perform brickwork. Every civil engineer should follow this working method at the site.

If you have any confusion read similar types of article: Specifications of Brickwork

You may also love to read: Calculation process to find the quantity of cement sand for plastering.

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