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Civil Engineering

Compressive Strength test of Brick

The compressive strength test of brick masonry is done to know the mechanical behavior of a brick. During the compressive strength test of brick masonry, the compressive strength force is applied on the brick samples until the failure occurs ( broken seen in brick).

By this test, it is easy to characterize the behavior of brick masonry from the undamaged state through to peak and post-peak state.

Procedure for Compressive Strength test of Brick

You need to take at least four or five units of bricks as a sample in order to find the average strength of the unit.

A) Sampling of brick

At first, remove the unevenness of the bed face of the brick surface by grinding and make the surface even and smooth.

Sampling of brick
Sampling of brick for Compressive Strength test

Now you need to immerse brick samples on the water for 24 hours. Then take out the brick samples and drain out the moisture at room temp.

Fill the voids and frog of brick with a 1:1 cement mortar ratio

Store these sample underdamped condition for 24 hours for that use jute bags.

After that, these bricks samples are immersed in water for 3 days. And brick samples are taken out after 3 days and water is wipe-out from the surface before taking to the laboratory.     

B) Testing of sample

Put the sample in a compressive testing machine between the 3 mm ply sheet.

 Then apply load in the uniform increase rate of 14Mpa/minute until failure occurs.

And the maximum load at failure is noted for all samples. The load at failure is max at which specimen fails to produce any further increase in indicator gauge on the testing machine.

Formula for Compressive strength of brick

In this way, you can find out or determined the compressive strength of brick.

Compressive Strength of Bricks should be following.

Depending upon the class of bricks compressive strength is different.

Following is the standard value of compressive strength.

(i) Compressive Strength of first-class brick is 105 kg/cm2.

(ii) Compressive Strength of 2nd class brick is 70 kg/cm2.

(iii) Compressive Strength of common building brick is 35 kg/cm2.

(iv) Compressive Strength of sun-dried brick is 15 to 25 kg/cm2.

Are you confused ?

Read Similar type of article then: Compressive strength test on bricks

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Civil Engineering

7 fields where Scope of Civil Engineering

What are the Scope of Civil Engineering?

A common question in the mind of those students, who planning civil engineering.

Before choosing civil engineering, many students try to gather information about the scope or future of civil engineering.

So, they starting googling the information about civil engineering, may ask some relatives or someone seniors who are studying civil engineering.

After my Intermediate, I did the same thing 😀 .

Even I’m confused at that time whether to choose civil engineering or not.

So in this article, I am gonna discuss about the scope of civil engineering only.

Before discussing the scope of civil engineering, you should know why you need to choose civil engineering.

Every profession is important and for the smooth functioning of society, every profession should be respected and given importance. Engineering is not just the study of 50 subjects but it is moral studies of intellectual life. You will learn many during and after engineering.

Engineering itself is a challenging and tough profession. You have to work with society, with contractors, under the political influence but you should have to keep your moral ground high. At the same time, you have responsibilities toward society.

Civil Engineer is not that one who just looks after the construction work but the one who makes dreams come true.

Simply, we can call engineer the god who builds other’s dreams, this line may be controversial but just look at these biggest and the incredible construction works all around the world.

As being a good scientist you have to with your original ideas but to be a good engineer you need to makes a design that works with a few ideas as possible.

Although civil engineers have lots of scopes you may go for as a surveyor, as a site engineer, in the construction sector, in planning & designing and much more.

As an engineer, you gave shape with perfection to the works so for every filed the engineers are required.

Some fields where Scope of civil engineering are as follows:

A) Civil Engineer as Project Manager or Assistant Project Manager

Different NGOs and private companies related to construction seek engineers as there project manager or as an assistant project manager. In different construction projects civil engineers heads. So, in a developing country like us, there is a lot of possibilities and scope for civil engineer.

B) Civil Engineer as a Site Engineer

In Civil Engineering works, the site engineer is mostly required to conduct the work as per guidelines. And also to maintain the quality of works the civil engineers are seeking as a site engineer.

C) Quality control Executive

Since, as per the plan, the construction may be going on so to maintain the quality of works civil engineer is required. It a great channel for companies to maintain the quality and deliver it in fixed time so civil engineers are used as quality control executives. Also in tender works, whether that particular company works according to the requirement or not to check it quality control officer is required.

D) Planning and Design Officer

After engineering, you may get a chance to work in an important portfolio of government or some private construction company as planning and designing officer. To become a planning and designing officer you need more experience to deal with the problem and new ideas.

E) Civil Engineer as Surveyor

Before making a plan for any construction, the survey of that particular place is necessary. After making the survey report of that site the other works are conducted. So, as a surveyor, you can build your future in civil engineering. Surveying is tough work, but there is lots of money. Per day you may earn up to $100 – $150 which is quite good.

F) Civil Engineer as Consultant

As a consultant, you may work after graduation. The consultant is one of the easy but risky work. In valuation work, you can work for different banks. For property valuation bank hire civil engineers but while working as a valuation officer you must be careful and stay safe from the risk estimate of the property.

G) Civil Engineer on Construction

In every construction, engineer’s views are taken. Depending upon the cost of construction works, engineers are directly or indirectly involved in it. So, in construction filed the demand of civil engineers is high. Also, engineers are the backbone of construction no works can be better without engineer’s suggestion because after completing civil engineers much technical knowledge as an engineer you gains which are helpful in the construction field.

So, if you are planning to choose this course go for it.

You may love to read this article too: Basic Skills Required for Civil Engineers

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Civil Engineering

Basic Skills Required for Civil Engineers

In the engineering field with the time you need to learn different skills and always update your self with new technology and equipment. If you can’t modernize yourself, you will be out of the race. If you can update yourself, you will be outdated and others will replace you.

For Civil Engineers out of your book syllabus, you need to learn different things one of them is how to deal with society. A Civil engineer is not only the person who is responsible for his/her work but directly and indirectly responsible for the social and economic reform of society and the whole nation.

In this article, we will discuss the basic skills required for civil engineers.

I divided the skills required for Civil Engineers into two different categories.

1. Professional skills required for Civil Engineers

  1. Should able to take social and professional responsibility.
  2. Able to work with different ideas and diverse teams.
  3. You have to be great communication skills.
  4. Ability to recognize the need for life-long learning.
  5. Should be aware of role and responsibility in society.
  6. Able to choose the best project among different ideas.

2. Technical Skills required for Civil Engineers

  1. Good in the calculation as well as the ability to apply them in Engineering.
  2. Should have good knowledge about engineering tools and techniques.
  3. Able to analyze the problem and find the best solutions.
  4. Should have good knowledge and ability to operate different engineering software.
  5. You should be able to do an estimation of the work.
  6. Capable to design the projects by considering social, financial and environmental impacts.
  7. You should have knowledge about billings and tender process.

In the civil engineering profession, these skills will help you. However, there are lots of problems you have to face during working at the sites.

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Civil Engineering Estimation

How To Calculate Materials For Concrete?

During the construction works, you have to calculate materials required for preparing the concrete. In this article, we will discuss the calculation process to find the exact volume of materials required to prepare specific concrete of different grades.

The calculation depends upon the mix ratio of concrete materials.

Here is the table for concrete grade with the mix-ratio of materials.

grade of concrete

Also Read: Top Duties and responsibilities of a civil engineer as a site supervisor

Let calculate the quantity of materials for 1 m³ volume of concrete.

The mix of cement, sand, and aggregate is done according to the grades of concrete. Depending upon the nature of work and requirements, the selection of the different grades of concrete is done.

Let we take here M20 grade of concrete which means a mixture of cement, sand, and aggregate in the portion of 1: 2: 4

Before going to the calculation process, a few points you need to know,

  1. Dry volume of concrete material is 50-55% more.
  2. Density of cement = 1440 kg/cum
  3. The standard weight of 1 KG cement bag is 50Kg.
  4. Water cement ratio is taken 0.45.
  5. 1 m³ water = 1000 Litres

Let the wet volume of concrete = 1 m³ 

And, the dry volume of concrete (v) = 1 × 1.54 = 1.54 m³ 

Note: We need to take around 50-55% more materials (cement, sand, and aggregate ) in dry form so that after the mixture of materials with water the compacted volume will be less.

Here we take M20 grade of concrete so the mix ratio of cement, sand, and aggregate for M20 is 1:2:4 (a:b:c)

Calculation Process For Cement Concrete

Here we have total dry volume (V) = 1.54m³

Since, the mix ratio of concrete is 1:2:4, which means a mixture of 1 portion of cement, 2 portions of sand and 4 portion aggregates by volume.

So, the addition of  total mix ratio= 1+2+4 = 7

Calculation to find quantity of Cement in concrete

Total volume of Cement = (Volume of dry concrete / total mix ratio) × portion of cement in concrete

= (1.54/7) x 1 

= 0.22 m³

As mentioned above in the article, the density of cement = 1440 kg/m³ and weight of a bag of cement is 50kg.

∴ Weight of cement = density x volume = 0.22 x 1440  = 316.8 kg

∴ No. of total cement bags required = 316.8 / 50 = 6.33 bags.

Calculation to find quantity of Sand in concrete

For finding the volume of Aggregates used in concrete, we will use the following formulae.

The Volume of Sand = (Total dry volume of concrete/ total mix ratio) × portion of sand in concrete 

= (1.54/7) x 2 = 0.44 m³

Calculation to find quantity of Aggregates in concrete

To find the quantity of Aggregates used in concrete, we will use the following formulae.

Volume of Aggregates = (Total dry volume of concrete/ total mix ratio) × portion of aggregates in concrete 

= (1.54 / 7) x 4 = 0.88 m³

Calculation to find the volume of Water required

According to the IS code for concrete, the standard water/cement ratio is 0.45.

So, w/c = 0.45

∴Required water for 0.22 m³ cement = 0.22 x 0.45 = 0.099 m³

As we know, 1 m³ of water = 1000 Litres

∴ Required water in liter = 0.099 x 1000 = 99 liters.In this way we find out the quantity of materials required for the 1m³ concrete.

Reference Article: How to calculate the total cost for 1m³ cement concrete work?

You may also love to read: Calculation process to find the quantity of cement sand for plastering.

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Civil Engineering

Top Duties and responsibilities of a civil engineer as a site supervisor

In the construction work, a civil engineer works as a supervisor. A civil site engineer is who supervises the workers and responsible for the execution of work and control the subordinates.

Duties of a civil engineer at the site

  1. To finish the work in the estimated time.
  2. To follow the duties and responsibilities of his own position.
  3. Divide the work among the workers and direct and assist them in completing it.
  4. Use his own knowledge as a technical expert and lead the team.
  5. To train his/her juniors and motivate them.
  6. Evaluate the performance of the employees and encourage them.
  7. To develop discipline among employees.
  8. Correct the mistakes of employees and help them to solve the problem.
  9. To maintain the policies and procedures of the organization among the employees.
  10. Cooperate with co-workers.
  11. To take advice and assistance from the specialist when needed. 
  12. Deal with public and political interference.
  13. Listen to the employee problems and trying to solve it.
  14. Make a work progress report and update it daily.

Also Read: Roles of Civil Engineers for Society

Responsibilities of a civil engineer as a supervisor

  1. As a site engineer, he/she is responsible for quality control.
  2. Site-engineer is responsible to work accordingly to the drawings and specifications of the work provided. 
  3. He/she is responsible for keeping the cost of work according to the specified budget.
  4. Responsible for all the works executed by subordinates under his/her supervision.
  5. A site supervisor is responsible for dealing with parties and solves the issues raised or conflict at the site.
  6. As a site engineer, he/she has to supervise the work, prepare /check bills and check accounts.
  7. Site-engineer responsible for the delay of work and have to make a report on that with specific reasons.
  8. Site-supervisor is also responsible for coordination with the team and has to maintain a friendly environment at the site.

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Civil Engineering

Roles of Civil Engineers for Society

Every action of engineering is directly related to societal issues, and hence engineers have an impact on society. By using engineering techniques in the meantime engineer helps to solve the societal problems.

Some of the basic roles of civil engineers for society are:

  1. Help and train people to operate and maintain the solution system for its sustainability.
  2. Regularly interact with society to understand the societal issues and propose a plan for the of short-medium-long term solutions.
  3. To provide technical support to the society.
  4. Solve the societal issues without compromise with the safety, and environmental options.
  5. To help in the decision-making process to choose the best option.
  6. For optimum design, including detailed specifications to implement the designed product.
  7. By technical supervising on the construction works.
  8. By providing training to the people to operate and maintain the constructed work.

How can an engineer help to change society?

Engineers can help society by bringing the following Changes:

  1. By lowering the cost of construction work.
  2. By maintaining the safety of workers as a site.
  3. By faster construction of the project.
  4. By increasing productivity.
  5. By maintaining the quality of work.

Also Read: Top Duties and responsibilities of a civil engineer

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